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 1929 - Filming the MGM Lion. Leo the Lion is the mascot for the Hollywood film studio Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and one of its predecessors, Goldwyn Pictures, featured in the studio's production logo, which was created by the Paramount Studios art director Lionel S. Reiss.[1] Since 1917 (and when the studio was formed by the merger of Samuel Goldwyn's studio with Marcus Loew's Metro Pictures and Louis B. Mayer's company in 1924), there have been seven different lions used for the MGM logo; the most popular including Tanner[2] and Leo, the current (and seventh) lion. Tanner was used on all Technicolor films and MGM cartoons (including the Tom and Jerry series), and in use on the studio logo for 22 years (Leo has been in use since January 1957, a total of 58 years and counting). However, when the MGM animation department, which had closed in 1958, reopened with the Chuck Jones-directed Tom and Jerry shorts in 1963, these shorts used Tanner in th e opening sequence rather than Leo, who had already been adapted onto the studio logo and the Gene Deitch-directed Tom and Jerry cartoons from 1960-62. Leo, the seventh Lion, is MGM's longest-lived lion, having appeared on most MGM films since 1957, eventually replacing George. He was born in Burgers Zoo in the Netherlands, Arnhem. He was also the youngest at the time MGM filmed him roaring (hence his smaller mane). Leo was purchased from famous animal dealer Henry Trefflich, and trained by Ralph Helfer. In addition to being used as the MGM lion, Leo also appeared in other productions such as the religious epic King of Kings (1961), Zebra in the Kitchen (1965), Fluffy (1965), and Napoleon and Samantha (1972); as well as a memorable TV commercial for Dreyfus Investments in 1961. Leo also made several appearances on the 1971-72 TV series The Pet Set, proving himself gentle enough to let a blind teenage girl pet him in one episode! Two different versions of this logo were used: an "extended" version, with the lion roaring three times (used from 1957–1960); and the "standard" version, with the lion roaring twice (used since 1960). In the Chuck Jones-directed Tom and Jerry cartoons released between 1963 and 1967, Tanner was used in the opening sequence instead of Leo. Three MGM films, Raintree County (1957), Ben-Hur (1959), and Mutiny on the Bounty (1962), utilized a still-frame variation of this logo (Raintree County and Mutiny of the Bounty, however, would also have the lion's roar played along with their opening scores). For Ben-Hur, the reason for this was because the director thought that the roar would feel out of place for the opening nativity scene of the movie. This logo would also appear on black-and-white films, such as Jailhouse Rock (1957) and A Patch of Blue (1965). In 2012, as first shown as a snippet in the teaser and theatrical trailers of the 23rd James Bond film Skyfall, to which can now be fully seen on the studio's website under its history link, Shine Studio was chosen to redesign and animate the logo in stereoscopic 3-D (three-dimensional). This marks the first time in the company's 88-year history that the MGM logo and its lion mascot have been created in 3-D stereo. To add dimension, Shine modeled a close up of Leo's eye creating an element to pull back through for a dramatic reveal of the lion, laurels, and filmstrip. All the elements of the logo were re-built in 3-D and then placed on different planes to add dimensional layers and drama. The 1995 roar is reused once again as Leo roars, and the company name is brought in from above to center the top screen, which completes the logo sequence. MGM's website address was removed, as MGM is no longer as of 2012 a self-distribution entity, but rather a production company. One reason for the new full-motion logo is the fact that more commonplace digital 3-D movies are being released almost every week and for -then- upcoming films MGM has partnered in production with, such as the Hobbit film series with New Line Cinema, Hansel, and Gretel: Witch Hunters and G.I. Joe: Retaliation with Paramount Pictures, they are, for example, either shot in native digital 3-D or converted in post-production to stereoscopic digital 3-D